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Sustainability After Death

February 26, 2016

Let’s have a conversation that some find uncomfortable. Actually, I think it’s safe to say that most people find this conversation unpleasant as our culture tends to evade this topic until it’s absolutely necessary. The conversation I’m talking about is death and how we care for the body of a loved one after he or she has died.  This is a very sensitive and personal conversation to have, but I think it’s crucial to acknowledge the environmental and sustainability issues connected to the current standard methods of caring for the dead. In doing so, we might make choices that are better for the environment, but also reconnect us to a natural process and bring an intimacy and reverence back to after death care.

When we think of death we imagine hospitals, elaborate caskets, and perhaps the strange but vaguely familiar smell that seems to permeate the air in funeral homes.

We’re not terribly connected to death and the process of burying our loved one’s like our ancestors were.  Home funerals were the norm and the body of a loved one was washed, dressed, and laid out in the home by family members who then invited friends and members of the community to pay their respects.  The body wasn’t feared or reviled. Instead, the process allowed for loved one’s to ritualize the process in a way that fostered closure and acceptance. In many ways it was therapeutic.

Sadly, nowadays, the bodies of our loved one’s are whisked away, treated like contagions that require sterilization, and when it’s time to be buried we see vague proximations of their faces as they rest in their caskets embalmed and painted so that we don’t actually see any physical evidence of their decomposition. We’d prefer if it looked liked they’re only sleeping. Not dead. Not gone.  We try so hard preserve what is, in reality, no longer there.  In fact, one can choose to be buried inside a casket which is specifically intended to stave off decomposition; To protect nature from reclaiming what should be returning to the Earth.


So what implications does this have on the environment?


Embalming Chemicals are nasty.

Embalming is the process of replacing bodily fluids with chemicals in an effort to delay decomposition. Embalming fluids contain formaldehyde, which is known to have adverse health effects including cancer, which means that embalmers themselves are especially at risk.  Embalming fluids also contain methanol, which is known to be harmful to animals. These fluids ultimately leech into the ground, contaminating the soil and groundwater. There is growing concern that they might end up reaching water supplies.

Adverse environmental effects of embalming fluids leaching into the ground following a body’s burial have yet to be adequately established, but over 800,000 gallons of embalming fluid are introduced into U.S. soil every year through burial, sometimes disconcertingly close to animal and plant life

The conventional lawn cemetery is a resource-intensive, inefficient use of space and uses herbicides and pesticides.

Conventional cemeteries are intended to look like peaceful park settings; A place to take a quiet walk and visit our deceased loved one’s while immersed in nature. Unfortunately, a natural environment it’s anything but.  Extensive maintenance is required to keep conventional cemeteries looking as pristine as they do, which means that  herbicides and pesticides are used, which introduce pollutants into the soil and prevent native flora from growing. But, what resides below ground is problematic, too.

According to National Geographic,

American funerals are responsible each year for the felling of 30 million board feet of casket wood (some of which comes from tropical hardwoods), 90,000 tons of steel, 1.6 million tons of concrete for burial vaults, and 800,000 gallons of embalming fluid.

All of this below ground makes it quite difficult to ever use the land again. The space is condemned to hold the concrete and steel vestiges of one’s existence long after their last friend or recent family member or anyone who might care enough to visit has passed on. In fact, Mark Harris, author of Grave Matters, contends that cemeteries are more like landfills.

Those caskets are doing more damage than simply taking up space, though.

Most studies of noxious chemicals leeching into burial grounds tend to focus on fluids emanating from bodies and do not address any chemicals that might come from caskets. A 2012 study in South Africa looked at the mineral contamination from corroding and degrading metals used in caskets. From the study,

Indeed, recent studies conducted found the highest contamination arising from cemeteries originated from minerals that are released by burial loads [1]. The minerals that are used in coffin-making may corrode or degrade releasing harmful toxic substances [2]. These may be transported from the graves through seepage and diffuse into surrounding soils. From there they may leach into groundwater and become a potential health risk to the residents in areas surrounding the cemetery [3,4,5,6,7,8]. Most existing cemeteries were sited without thinking about potential risks to the local environment or community [9].

Toxic chemicals that may be released into groundwater include substances that were used in embalming and burial practices in the past as well as varnishes, sealers and preservatives and metal handles and ornaments used on wooden coffins.

Indeed, it would seem as though the caskets intended to stave off decomposition are themselves no match for nature and erode their chemicals into the soil.

So, what can we do?

Luckily, natural and green death care is a quickly growing industry as the environmental consequences of conventional death care and burials become more and more apparent.

There are some pretty innovative movers-and-shakers within the death care industry who are quite knowledgeable about more natural methods of burial, and are even creating new methods of disposition (like this Mushroom Death Suit!).

I really love Caitlin Doughty, mortician and founder of Order of The Good Death, who , along with her Order members, is a wonderful resource and really helpful in learning about death acceptance and natural burial. I encourage everyone to check out the website.

Anyway, in addition to yearning to be more connected to the end-of-life process, people want to be buried in a way that is in line with their values.

The funny thing is that green burial is not a new concept. If you think about it, it’s the way humans have handled their dead for thousands of years. Some cultures still do.

It was only as recently as the Civil War that we began to commercialize the death process. Family members wanted to preserve the bodies of their loved one’s killed during the war, so they were embalmed in order to be transported back home for a proper burial. This quickly became a booming business and the funeral industry as we know it grew from there.

What are my options for a more environmentally friendly burial?

Don’t embalm.

The easiest and most obvious choice is to bypass embalming. With rare exception, embalming is not required by law. Contrary to what some funeral directors may have you believe, embalming provides no public health benefit and is merely used to delay decomposition.

Choose an eco-friendly casket, urn, or shroud.

A simply Google search for environmentally friendly caskets yields numerous results. One company, The Natural Burial Company, offers a range of biodegradable containers intended to be used in a direct-earth burial, which means a burial directly into the soil instead of a cement vault. Their wicker caskets are quite lovely.

Image courtesy of The Natural Burial Company

Another company, Passages International, creates caskets from sustainable materials like willow, seagrass, and bamboo.


Willow Casket Outside

Image courtesy of Passages International


Passages International also makes really interesting biodegradable earth and water urns. I had actually never heard of water urns before and as someone with an affinity for the ocean I find them especially appealing. They offer a variety of water urns which are made from sand, recycled paper, and even Himalayan salt.

Salt Urn Adult, Medium & Mini Himalayan Rock Salt Urns

These urns made from rock salt dissolve within 4 hours of being submerged in water. Image courtesy of Passages International


If possible, have a home funeral.

This might not be appealing to everyone, especially given our current cultural state of death acceptance and awareness. Continued conversations about natural death care is sure to make this a more feasible option for many.

Also remember that home funerals were once the norm here in the United States and many cultures throughout the world still have them. But, a home funeral does require some research (all the more reason to be prepared!) because while it is legal in every state to have a home funeral, some states have restrictions.

At the very least, a home funeral will save you a lot of money as conventional funerals with a funeral home can be quite expensive. But, perhaps more importantly, a home funeral can be a more meaningful way to participate in and celebrate the life of a close friend or loved one. Engaging oneself in the process of caring for the body and keeping it at home until it’s time for burial can be healing and help to usher closure and acceptance, while also helping to erase the fear of the dead.

The National Home Funeral Alliance is a great resource that can help answer questions with respect to legal restrictions, advice on how to care for the body (including refrigeration), and who to connect with in your area.

Choose a natural burial

If possible, elect to be buried in a green burial ground.



Infographic courtesy of Natural Grace Funerals



The Green Burial Council is an organization whose mission is to “inspire and advocate for environmentally sustainable, natural death care through education and certification.” The GBC certifies three distinct green burial grounds: hybrid, natural burial grounds, and conservation burial grounds.

From the GBC standards:

“Hybrid  Burial Grounds are  conventional  cemeteries  offering  the  option  for  burial  without  the  need  for  a  vault  (partial,  inverted  or  otherwise),  a  vault  lid,  concrete  box,  slab  or  partitioned  liner.  Hybrid  Burial  Grounds  shall  not  require  the embalming  of  decedents  and  must  allow  for  any  kind  of  eco-friendly  burial  containers  including  shrouds.
Natural  Burial  Grounds require  the  adoption  of  practices/protocols  that  are  energy  conserving,  minimize  waste,  and  do  not  require  the  use  of  toxic  chemicals.  A  Natural  Burial  Ground  achieves  GBC  certification  by  prohibiting  the  use  of  vaults  (partial,  inverted  or  otherwise),  vault  lids,  concrete  boxes,  slabs  or  partitioned  liners,  and  by  prohibiting  the  burial  of  decedents  embalmed  with toxic  chemicals,  as  well  as  by  banning  burial containers  not  made  from  natural/plant  derived  materials.  It  must  have  in  place  a  program  of  Integrated  Pest  Management  (IPM)  and  be  designed,  operated  and  maintained  to  produce  a  naturalistic  appearance,  based  on  use  of  plants  and  materials  native  to  the region,  and  patterns  of  landscape  derived  from  and  compatible  with  regional  ecosystems.
Conservation  Burial  Ground, in  addition  to  meeting  all  the  requirements  for  a  Natural  Burial  Ground,  must  further  legitimate  land  conservation.  It  must  protect  in  perpetuity  an  area  of  land  specifically  and  exclusively  designated  for  conservation.  A  Conservation  Burial  Ground  must  involve  an  established  conservation  organization  that  holds  a  conservation  easement  or  has  in  place  a  deed  restriction  guaranteeing  long term stewardship.
toc green-cemetery

Crestone Natural Burial Ground, Crestone, CO

There are currently 340 GBC certified burial grounds across 44 states. This number is constantly growing, so while your state may not currently offer anything, chances are they will in years to come.


It is with hope that we become more comfortable in discussing after death care with our loved one’s and return to a more sustainable, ecologically sound way of returning to the Earth.  In doing so, concepts like these burial pods by  Capsula Mundi, will be a reality.

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHkZZNlxLzo&w=560&h=315]

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Dan McLean February 26, 2016 at 10:10 pm

A well written and thoughtful article.

My Kind Closet April 15, 2016 at 8:33 pm



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